Climate / Range
Tropical; 32°N - 27°S, 32°E - 134°W
Mean live weight: 1,800 g up to 2,200 g. Body-wall thickness: 0.1 cm. Body cylindrical, arched dorsally (bivium) and the flattened ventrally (trivium). Bivium smooth. Podia on bivium small, conical , and irregularly arranged; podia on trivium numerous, short, and arranged on the radii and interradii; calcareous disc of podia around 400 micrometer in diameter. Mouth ventral, surrounded by 20 short, dark tentacles. Anus nearly dorsal, surrounded by 5 groups of papillae. Calcareous ring with large radial pieces and narrow interradials. Cuvierian tubules numerous; large. Bivium whitish to brown, variable among specimens and showing characteristics dark eye-like some specimens uniformly brown with yellow spots. Spicules on ventral tegument with various simple rosettes and biscuit-like nodules, occasionally with small hole; dorsal tegument with rosettes only; ventral podia with short rods; dorsal podia with x-shaped rods; tentacles with spiny rods and large irregular plates.
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models