Cephalopoda | Octopoda
Turgeon, D.D., J.F. Quinn Jr., A.E. Bogan, E.V. Coan, F.G. Hochberg, W.G. Lyons, P.M. Mikkelsen, R.J. Neves, C.F.E. Roper, G. Rosenberg, B. Roth, A. Scheltema, F.G. Thompson, M. Vecchione and J.D. Willams. 1998. (Ref. 1667)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 6.0 cm ML male/unsexed; (Ref. 96968)
Pelagic; depth range 100 - 1400 m (Ref. 96968)
Climate / Range
Indo-Pacific, Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean. Subtropical to subtropical.
Depth range from 100 to 1,400 m. These small pelagic octopuses typically live over deeper water. Young animals tend to occur in the shallower end of the range. As members of this species reach sexual maturity the iridescence of the digestive gland and eyes is lost and animals migrate to deeper darker waters. Pigmentation greatly increases in females as they mature and the arms become relatively longer. Increased pigmentation may be associated with the need to mask output from the female's circumoral light organ. This light organ may be used for reproductive signalling to males. The posterior salivary glands of mature males are greatly enlarged and have been suggested to produce a chemical attractant for females (Ref. 96968). Members of the class Cephalopoda are gonochoric. Male and female adults usually die shortly after spawning and brooding, respectively. Mating behavior: Males perform various displays to attract potential females for copulation. During copulation, male grasp the female and inserts the hectocotylus into the female's mantle cavity where fertilization usually occurs. Life cycle: Embryos hatch into planktonic stage and live for some time before they grow larger and take up a benthic existence as adults (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models