Cephalopoda | Teuthida
Roper, C.F.E., M.J. Sweeney and C.E. Nauen. 1984. (Ref. 275)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 9.0 cm ML male/unsexed; (Ref. 275)
Pelagic-oceanic; depth range 500 - 1000 m (Ref. 275)
Climate / Range
Polar; 29°S - 74°S, 167°E - 16°E (Ref. 275)
Atlantic, Indo-Pacific and the Antarctic.
Oceanic; occurring in equatorial, southern subtropical, southern peripheral water masses. Paralarvae are epipelagic and mesopelagic; adults are lower epipelagic, mesopelagic and bathypelagic. Predators include the dwarf sperm whale, Kogia sima, off Brazil, pygmy sperm whale, K. breviceps, off New Zealand, the southern elephant seal, Miroungia leonina, and fishes, such as hakes and macrurids. A principal prey item seems to be krill (Ref. 97142). Members of the class Cephalopoda are gonochoric. Male and female adults usually die shortly after spawning and brooding, respectively. Mating behavior: Males perform various displays to attract potential females for copulation. During copulation, male grasp the female and inserts the hectocotylus into the female's mantle cavity where fertilization usually occurs. Life cycle: Embryos hatch into planktonic stage and live for some time before they grow larger and take up a benthic existence as adults (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models
Low vulnerability (10 of 100)