Echinoidea | Spatangoida
Koukouras, A. and M.-S. Kitsos. 2010. (Ref. 85345)
Size / Weight / Age
Benthic; depth range 0 - 240 m (Ref. 85345)
Climate / Range
Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea. Subtropical and tropical.
Maximum depth from Ref. 83942. This is an epibenthic species found on rocky and soft bottom substrates in subtidal areas with depths of 0 to 240 m (Ref. 83942). Members of the class Echinoidea are gonochoric. Fertilization is external. Brooding is common, eggs are held either on the peristome, around the periproct or deep into the concavities on the petaloids. Life cycle: Embryos develop into planktotrophic larvae (echinoplateus) and live for several months before they sink to the bottom using their tube feet to adhere on the ground where they metamorphose into young urchins (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models