Aves | Anseriformes
SAUP Database. 2006. (Ref. 356)
Size / Weight / Age
max. published weight: 910.00 g (Ref. 356)
Climate / Range
Northern Atlantic and Eastern Pacific: Southern Alaska to California. Subtropical to Polar.
Culmen: 3.185 cm; tarsus: 4.05 cm; wing: 22.75 cm.
Coastal. Exhibits surface diving and dabbling behavior (Ref. 356). Inhabits the littoral zone. Winters in estuaries. Breeds inland in boreal forests. Undergoes molting migration. Molting birds are found in coastal saltwaters, estuaries, rich shallow freshwater lakes (in the Yukon), in brackish waters of fjords and rich shallow coastal lakes surrounded by open water (in Denmark), rocky foreshores (in Ungava Bay). Population threats include oil spills and toxic chemical contamination, logging, fish introductions in breeding lakes, and hunting (Ref. 95145).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models