Aves | Ciconiiformes
Environment / Climate / Range
Others; brackish. Temperate
Pacific Ocean: Kermadec Islands.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
A wader; feeds in marshes and floodplains; breeds near river lowlands (Ref. 95154). Highly omnivorous. The Hunter estuary saltmarsh and intertidal mudflats, south-eastern Australia, identified as feeding and roosting ground for non-breeding birds; where they feed during the day and roost at night; from where they migrate to Alaska, Siberia, Mongolia, northern China or Japan to breed each season. Overwintering birds preyed on by raptors in this region; non-breeding plumage provide good camouflage in the saltmarsh; observed flattening themselves against vegetation when raptors are overhead; when sensing threat, vocalizes warning alarm calls to alert the flock. Population decline linked to coastal developments that compromise their saltmarsh habitat (Ref. 95283).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oliver, W.R.B. 1912. (Ref. 89447)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models