Aves | Ciconiiformes
Environment / Climate / Range
Indo-Pacific, Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean and Antarctic. Subtropical to polar.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 441.00 g (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 1.58 cm; tarsus: 1.83 cm; wing: 26.0 cm.
Total Length: 38 to 40 cm; Wingspan: 81 to 91 cm (Ref. 8812). Circumpolar (Ref. 91362). Found over open-water (Ref. 356). Follows ships. A gregarious species; noisy and quarrelsome when feeding on ship galley waste (Ref. 91362). Exhibits surface-seizing, foot paddling and pattering (Ref. 356). Breeds colonially (Ref. 91362).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Brooke, M. de L. 1995. (Ref. 5718)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100)