Echinoidea | Spatangoida
Gaspar, M.B., M.N. Santos, F. LeitÃ£o, L. ChÃcharo, A. ChÃcharo and C.C. Monteiro. 2003. (Ref. 2703)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 6.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 7882)
Benthic; brackish; depth range 0 - 230 m (Ref. 85345)
Climate / Range
Subtropical; 72°N - 41°S, 32°W - 179°E
Indo-West Pacific, Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean.
Species' maximum size from the North Sea off Belgium (Ref. 7882). Found in sandbanks (Ref. 96352) and along the coastal zone. Buries in a wide range of sediment types but often in coarser-grained sediment with low mud content of less than 20% (Ref. 7882). Reported in areas influenced by estuarine outflows (Ref. 96507). Herbivorous epistratum (sub-surface deposit) feeder (Refs. 96352, 96501). Members of the class Echinoidea are gonochoric. Fertilization is external. Brooding is common, eggs are held either on the peristome, around the periproct or deep into the concavities on the petaloids. Life cycle: Embryos develop into planktotrophic larvae (echinoplateus) and live for several months before they sink to the bottom using their tube feet to adhere on the ground where they metamorphose into young urchins (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models