Echinoidea | Echinoida
Environment / Climate / Range
Benthic; depth range 0 - 100 m (Ref. 96312). Temperate, preferred 10°C (Ref. 107945)
Northeast Atlantic: Norway, Germany and England.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 17.6 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 101443); max. reported age: 8 years (Ref. 101443)
It is found on the upper subtidal, and intertidally on low spring tides from depths of 0 to 100 meters. They graze and feed on a variety of plant and animal material (Ref. 96312). Small eggs, seasonally produced, spawning varies with latitude (Ref. 96312).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Small eggs, seasonally produced, spawning varies with latitude (Ref. 96312).
Harms, J. 1993. (Ref. 2711)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
FAO(fisheries: production) | FishSource | Sea Around Us
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 7.5 - 12.4, mean 10.3 (based on 538 cells).