Demospongiae | Poecilosclerida
Engel, S. and J.R. Pawlik. 2005. (Ref. 837)
Size / Weight / Age
Reef-associated; brackish; depth range 2 - 25 m (Ref. 108813)
Climate / Range
Western Central Atlantic.
Growth forms varies from thick encrustations more than 1 cm thick, to irregular interconnected encrusting lobes, globular masses, fused groups of conical to chimney-like tubes, or irregular branches reaching 35 cm in height and 3 cm in width. Surface either smooth and finely porous with many fine perforations, or finely rugose. May also be slimy and corrugated out of water. Exterior is commonly orange-brown, but may also be yellow-orange, orange, yellowish-brown or red-orange. Yellow to cream interior. Firm and brittle consistency. Mucus exudate rare. Oscules flush or elevated on conical lobes or tubes with a yellow collar membrane, may be evenly spaced, scattered, or in rows that fuse together into low ridges. May be surrounded by fine radiating grooves (Ref. 85482).
Occurs on coral reefs, hard bottoms, lagoons (Ref. 85482), and mangroves (Ref. 86836). It hosts alpheid shrimps in its canals (Ref. 83410). Members of the class Demospongiae are hermaphroditic. Life cycle: The zygote develops into parenchymella larva (free-swimming) before settling down on a substrate where it grows into a young sponge (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models