Reptilia | Squamata
Redfield, J.A., J.C. Holmes and R.D. Holmes. 1978. (Ref. 78387)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 140 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 801); common length : 110 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 801)
Reef-associated; depth range 3 - 22 m (Ref. 78387)
Climate / Range
Tropical; 31°N - 58°S (Ref. 356)
Young has gray to black annuli, while juveniles has 45-55 transverse bars that may extend down the flanks with the lower body whitish and without pattern. Adults are uniform gray above, whitish below. Dark bars wider or as wide than paler interspaces.
Average length is 90 cm. The venom of this snake is said to be responsible for more serious and fatal bites than all other sea snakes combined and is considered to have the most toxic venom. Based on studies, the myotoxic phospholipase A from the venom causes myoglobinuria in mice (Ref. 88062). Usually occurs in clear shallow reef waters (Ref. 2357), and may travel about ten miles up tidal rivers (Ref. 88062). Also prefers estuarine conditions in Australia (Ref. 2357). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 801), with 4 to 9 young ones in a brood (Ref. 88062). Feeds on fish (Refs. 801, 88062). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 801). It bears 4 to 9 young ones in a brood (Ref. 88062).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models
Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100)