Florideophyceae | Gigartinales
Environment / Climate / Range
Atlantic Ocean: in the Caribbean (in Lesser Antilles). Indian Ocean: from Djibouti to South Africa, including Reunion, east to India and south to Western Australia, including Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Pacific Ocean: from China to the South China Sea south to Queensland Australia, including Lord Howe Island and Fiji, east to the Hawaiian Islands.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Used for human consumption in stews, eaten fresh, or blanched in boiling water, or made into Eucheuma candy, or as garnishing; principal source of phycocolloid carrageenan (iota); controls heavy metal pollution (Pb, Cd); used as manure in industrial products and processes; used in animal feeds (Ref. 80758). Thrives very well on sandy-coralline to rocky substrate in areas constantly exposed to moderate to strong water currents; commonly found growing strongly attached to coralline gravelly-rocky or coarse sandy-rocky substrate at the intertidal to the upper (shallow) subtidal zone on the reefs exposed to moderate wave action or strong tidal currents where it may form thick clumps or beds. The fusion of branches upon coming in contact with each other and their ability to form secondary holdfasts at tips of branches results in the formation of thick and strongly attached clumps or carpet-like beds which are able to withstand moderate to strong water movement. Has never been reported from calm or protected habitats (Ref. 80758).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Guiry, M.D. and G.M. Guiry. 2009. (Ref. 80701)
Thalli consist of many terete branches, tapering to acute tips, densely covered with 1 to 8 mm long spinose determinate branchlets arranged in whorls, forming distinct nodes and internodes at the distal portions of the branches. Cross-section of a branch reveals a dense core of thick-walled and very small rhizoidal cells. Thalli up to 30 cm in height (Ref. 80758). The fusion of branches upon coming in contact with each other and their ability to form secondary holdfasts at tips of branches results in the formation of thick and strongly attached clumps or carpet-like beds (Ref. 80758).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
FAO(Aquaculture: production; | FisheriesWiki |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 24.7 - 29.3, mean 28.2 (based on 3630 cells; Ref. 115970