Hydrozoa | Anthoathecata
Marques, A.C., A.L. Peña Cantero and W. Vervoort. 2000. (Ref. 3086)
Size / Weight / Age
Pelagic; depth range ? - 34 m (Ref. 3086)
Climate / Range
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions
Colonies minute, stems fragile, up to 15 mm high, main stem unfascicled. Hydrocaulus arising from stolonal hydrorhiza; irregularly branched in radiate planes up to second order over its whole extension; pedicels arising directly from main stem. Perisarc of main stem weakly developed, brown up to half its length, single tubes 0.12-0.15 mm in diameter, not annulated. Pedicels with groups of three to four rings at their origin, 0.11-0.13 mm in diameter, with weakly developed perisarc. Hydranths whitish to pale brown, slender, 0.20-0.68 mm in height, 0.20-0.32 mm in diameter (measured in the body region just below tentacles), without a distinct groove in the aboral region; hypostome sometimes prominent; tentacles 25-28, occurring in one whorl below hypostome. Zooxanthellae present in hydranth and in coenosarc. Female gonophores present in holotype colonies. Female gonophore styloid in a late development stage. Mature blastocoels have no sign of tentacles and hypostome; spadix shed. Presence of two size classes of heterotrichous microbasic euryteles. Small microbasic eurytele, oval, commonly distributed over hydranth body, hypostome, coenosarc, and tentacles. Large microbasic euryteles, bean-shaped, shaft thick, crossing two-thirds the length of undischarged capsule; sparingly distributed over hydranth body, hypostome, and coenosarc (Ref. 3086).
The diagnostic character of the species is the presence of symbiotic zooxanthellae, highly concentrated in the ectoderm, giving it a pale cream color (Ref. 3086). Found from the intertidal level to a depth of 34 m. It grows on algae Cladostephus verticillatus, Corallina elongata, Cystoseira spinosa, Rhodymenia sp., and Sargassum vulgare in the communities of photophilic algae of infralittoral rock, sciaphilic algae of infralittoral and coralligenous rocks (Ref. 3086). Members of the order Anthoathecata are mostly colonial A-form hydroids. Life cycle: The zygote develops into planula inside the gonophore and is later released as an actinula which metamorphoses into polyp stage (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models