Aves | Ciconiiformes
Cherel, Y., C.-A. Bost, C. Guinet and H. Weimerskirch. 2005. (Ref. 89128)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 55.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 91362); common length : 55.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 2.8 kg (Ref. 356)
Climate / Range
Indo-Pacific, Atlantic Ocean and the Antarctic. Subtropical to polar.
Culmen: 4.255 cm; tarsus: 1.94 cm.
This species is gregarious, noisy and quarrelsome, and it is known to breed in huge colonies on steep cliffs (Ref. 91362). Pursuit diving (Ref. 356).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models