Aves | Ciconiiformes
Environment / Climate / Range
Northern and Central Pacific, Atlantic and the Arctic.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Found on beach and shoreline (Ref. 116102). Inhabits lakes and lakeshores. Feeds primarily on fish and minimally on plant material. Breeding pairs highly territorial, employing specific vocalizations and aggressive displays and postures when sensing threat. Copulation takes place on land. The male selects the nest site; egg clutch incubation approx. 27 days with both parents taking turns. Typical brood number, 2; with both parents feeding the young; commonly, only one of the 2 survives probably due to competition for food within the brood (Ref. 95186).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Lepage, D. 2007. (Ref. 7816)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models