Aves | Ciconiiformes
Chatwin, T.A. 2010. (Ref. 94991)
Size / Weight / Age
Climate / Range
Northeast Pacific: Canada.
They are agitated with boat distances of less than 30 meters when they are nesting, and less agitated during roosting (Ref. 94991). Nests on the surface of barren rocky islet or beach (Ref. 94991). Rocky-shore specialist concentrated along Pacific coast of northwestern North America (Ref. 87784). Feed mainly on intertidal marine invertebrates, primarily bivalves (clams and mussels) and other mollusks (limpets, whelks, and chitons); and secondarily, crabs, sea urchins, isopods, and barnacles. Contrary to its common name, oysters are rarely part of its diet (Ref. 95118). Uses rocky shores for nesting and rarely breed elsewhere. Nests prone to destruction by tides, particularly during storms; >10% of nests possibly lost to storm surges (Ref. 87784).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models