Gastropoda | Nudibranchia
Gallivan, G. and J. Danforth. 1999. (Ref. 312)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 7.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 844); common length : 8.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 312)
Demersal; depth range 0 - 28 m (Ref. 865)
Climate / Range
Pacific Ocean and the Arctic. Climate: subtropical to polar.
Found in oyster beds in bays in low to subtidal zones. Carnivorous; preys on hydroids, small sea anemones, bryozoans, worms, small crustacea, tiny clams, and even dead animals. Does not digest stinging capsules (nematocysts) of their prey. Instead the nematocysts are moved to the tip of the cerata and incorporated into the creature's own defense system (Ref. 312). Members of the order Nudibranchia are simultaneous hermaphrodites. Mating behavior: Both individuals darts their penis toward each other to induce one to act as a male and the other as the female. The victorious one to penetrate the body wall is the dominant male. Life cycle: Eggs are deposited on a substratum where they develop and hatch into (planktonic) vestigial veliger larval stage and further grow as adults (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models
Low vulnerability (10 of 100)