Cephalopoda | Sepiolida | Sepiolidae | Heteroteuthinae
Common names | Synonyms | CoL | ITIS | WoRMS
Jereb, P. and C.F.E. Roper (eds.). 2005. (Ref. 1695)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 2.5 cm ML male/unsexed; (Ref. 1695)
Benthopelagic; depth range 200 - 3000 m (Ref. 1695)
Climate / Range
Tropical; 52°N - 35°S, 85°W - 46°E (Ref. 106956)
Atlantic, Mediterranean, Western Indian Ocean and the Pacific.
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions
Mesopelagic or benthopelagic, but also found on the bottom at depth range to 1588 m, paralarvae found in mesopelagic and bathypelagic zones, far from coasts, with bottom depth ranging between 1,500 and 3,000 m. Adults live in groups in lower epipelagic and mesopelagic zones, common at depths between 200 and 300 m. Often found in areas inhabited by populations of red shrimps. Represents a sizeable component of the diet of several top predators, including dolphins, sharks, swordfish and tunas. Caught by pelagic nets and shrimp trawlers but of no commercial interest due to the low quantities available to fisheries (Ref. 1695). Members of the class Cephalopoda are gonochoric. Male and female adults usually die shortly after spawning and brooding, respectively. Mating behavior: Males perform various displays to attract potential females for copulation. During copulation, male grasp the female and inserts the hectocotylus into the female's mantle cavity where fertilization usually occurs. Life cycle: Embryos hatch into planktonic stage and live for some time before they grow larger and take up a benthic existence as adults (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models
Low vulnerability (10 of 100)