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Hirudinella ventricosa   (Pallas)

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Classification
Trematoda | Azygiida | Hirudinellidae
Common names | Synonyms | CoL | ITIS | WoRMS

Main reference
Williams, E.H. Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 1996. (Ref. 359)
References | Biblio | Coordinator | Collaborators

Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 17.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 359)

Environment
Host

Climate / Range
Tropical

Distribution
Atlantic Ocean and central Pacific.
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Short description
This small to very large fluke is unmistakable in the stomach of wahoo; a fleshy worm that varies in size and shape; with extended worms the size of a mans finger and contracted ones about the size of a walnut. Smaller worms: still massive but they are capable of contorting into many shapes. Color: brown to pinkish. 2 suckers: easily seen and are close together on the anterior end of the worm.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Length: 0.85 to 10 cm; Live worms may extend to 17 cm. Significance: The wounds they produce and sheer size must have a negative, if unstudied, impact on big game fishes. They have also been used as biological tags (Ref. 359). Associations: We examined 13 dolphin collected off La Parguera, Puerto Rico, for total parasites. Five of these fish had 2 to 3 of these worms, and thousands of other flukes in their stomachs. However, there was no obvious relationship between these worms and other species of flukes. One worm was found in a 0.1 cm long 0.02 cm wide stomach ulcer of an albacore from Desecheo Island. The relationship between stomach ulcers and stomach parasites in big game fishes is not certain. We have seen injuries to the stomach lining of wahoo caused by these worms, but could not be certain that these were not caused after the death of the host. Host Specificity: Wahoo is the preferred host of this parasite, both by being almost always present, and by achieving a consistently large size in this host. It is a characteristic parasite of wahoo and a primary parasite of Atlantic blue marlin, dolphin, little tunny and possibly other scombrids. Secondary parasite: scombrids and billfishes. New Hosts: Blackfin tuna, frigate tuna and longbill spearfish. Damage to Host: causes wounds by penetrating the stomach lining to feed on blood; and absorb a considerable amount of blood. Few worms occur per host. Usually only 1 or 2 of the worms present in the stomach of a host are very large. Some mechanism of the parasites or the hosts appears to regulate both the numbers and sizes (Ref. 359). Members of the class Trematoda are parasitic, thus requires a host to survive. Life cycle: Eggs are passed on to the feces of the hosts. Embryos hatch into miracidia and penetrate the tissues of snails where they further undergo three stages: sporocysts (Ref. 833).

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)

   

CITES status (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans




Human uses

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More information

Countries
FAO areas
Ecosystems
Occurrences
Introductions
Stocks
Ecology
Diet
Food items
Common names
Synonyms
Predators
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Morphology
Larvae
Abundance
References
Mass conversion

Internet sources
BHL | BOLD Systems | Check for other websites | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | DiscoverLife | FAO(Publication : search) | GenBank (genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | ispecies | National databases | PubMed | Scirus | FishBase | Tree of Life | uBio | uBio RSS | Wikipedia (Go, Search) | Zoological Record

Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models

Vulnerability (Ref. 71543)
Low vulnerability (10 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)
Unknown