Cephalopoda | Teuthida
Collins, M.A., C. Yau, L. Allcock and M.H. Thurston. 2001. (Ref. 1985)
Size / Weight / Age
Pelagic; depth range 0 - 4332 m (Ref. 106098)
Climate / Range
Temperate; 53°N - 22°S, 82°W - 37°E (Ref. 106965)
Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean and the Mediterranean Sea.
Mainly feeds on osteichthyes (myctophids), followed by crustaceans (natantian), and occasionally on cephalopods. Bases their diet on pelagic nictemeral migrators (Ref. 106992). Members of the class Cephalopoda are gonochoric. Male and female adults usually die shortly after spawning and brooding, respectively. Mating behavior: Males perform various displays to attract potential females for copulation. During copulation, male grasp the female and inserts the hectocotylus into the female's mantle cavity where fertilization usually occurs. Life cycle: Embryos hatch into planktonic stage and live for some time before they grow larger and take up a benthic existence as adults (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models