Malacostraca | Decapoda
Holthuis, L.B. 1991. (Ref. 4)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 65.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 441); common length : 40.0 cm BASL male/unsexed; (Ref. 441); max. published weight: 6.0 kg (Ref. 4)
Benthic; depth range 0 - 150 m (Ref. 4), usually ? - 50 m (Ref. 4)
Climate / Range
Subtropical; 69°N - 29°N, 28°W - 32°E (Ref. 4)
Northeast Atlantic, Mediterranean and Black Sea. Not in east of Crete and in the Baltic Sea.
Common total length: 23 to 50 cm. Occurs on the continental shelf at depths of 0 to 150 m, usually not deeper than 50 m. Found on hard substrates such as rock or hard mud. Nocturnal and territorial living in holes or crevices. Females with eggs are usually found throughout the year. The eggs are laid around July and carried for 10 to 11 months (Ref. 4). Indiscriminate scavengers, omnivorous or carnivorous. Feeds primarily on malacostracan crustaceans, gastropod molluscs, and polychaete annelids; but diet known to include carrion, echinoderms, lamellibranchs and plant matter (Ref. 96319). Females with eggs are usually found throughout the year. The eggs are laid around July and carried for 10 to 11 months (Ref. 4). Coupling occurs a few days after the female molts (Ref. 80921).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial; aquaculture: experimental
FAO(fisheries: production) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us
Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models
Moderate to high vulnerability (46 of 100)