Demospongiae | Hadromerida
Andrew, N. and M. Francis. 2003. (Ref. 82739)
Size / Weight / Age
Sessile; depth range ? - 550 m (Ref. 89939)
Climate / Range
Antarctic: Kerguelen, Terre Adelie, Heard Island and Antarctica.
White. Smooth surface, attaching to substrate by stolons or a root system. Branching or club shaped (Ref. 089939).
Contains substances with antifreeze properties and able to protect itself from diatom fouling. Suspension feeder; usually preyed on by starfishes. Diatoms present within its cells has no known role as of yet (Ref. 089939). Members of the class Demospongiae are hermaphroditic. Life cycle: The zygote develops into parenchymella larva (free-swimming) before settling down on a substrate where it grows into a young sponge (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models