Aves | Ciconiiformes | Laridae
Common names | Synonyms | CoL | ITIS | WoRMS
Lepage, D. 2007. (Ref. 7816)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 59.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 662.00 g (Ref. 356)
Others; freshwater; brackish
Climate / Range
Western Atlantic Ocean and Indo-Pacific. Subtropical to temperate.
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions
Culmen: 6.87 cm; wing: 40.02 cm.
Total Length: 48 to 59 cm; Wingspan: 127 to 140 cm (Ref. 8812). Plunge diver; dipping; coastal (Ref. 356). Low rate of mate retention; 75% of individuals change mates between years; attributed to tendency to change nesting localities annually. Nests solitarily or colonially. Variations in nest site quality and mate quality observed. Shifts breeding location and colony site when environment becomes unstable; as in cases of flooding, a factor reducing site fidelity. Possibly a pollutant-related behavioral response to PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) levels in the North American Great Lakes is lower nest-site tenacity of this species in the area. On the Colombia River, world's largest colony of Caspian Terns were questionably displaced in an attempt to protect hatchery-raised salmon molts on the river (Ref. 87784).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models
Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100)