Demospongiae | Dictyoceratida
Environment / Climate / Range
Reef-associated; brackish; depth range 3 - 30 m (Ref. 108813). Tropical
Western Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 0.5 cm H male/unsexed; (Ref. 415)
Vase shaped. Reddish brown externally, tan internally. Oscules: 0.1 - 0.5 cm wide, only on the inner side. Surface conulose: 0.1 - 0.5 cm high; 2 - 9 m apart. Compressible in consistency, tough to cut (Ref. 415). May also be cup- or bowl-shaped; cylindrical forms rather than widening upward possible. Cup sides may be of unequal heights. Conules on the inner surface of the cup distinctly lower and crowded. Weak to well-developed vertical ribs or ridges on outer surface possible, surface may appear almost smooth. Rubbery. Exudate absent (Ref. 85482).
Rare on mangroves (Ref. 415), but common on shallow hard grounds, seagrass beds, and inshore reefs (Ref. 85482). Members of the class Demospongiae are hermaphroditic. Life cycle: The zygote develops into parenchymella larva (free-swimming) before settling down on a substrate where it grows into a young sponge (Ref. 833).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Members of the class Demospongiae are hermaphroditic. Life cycle: The zygote develops into parenchymella larva (free-swimming) before settling down on a substrate where it grows into a young sponge.
Collin, R., M.C. DÃaz, J. Norenburg, R.M. Rocha, J.A. SÃ¡nchez, M. Schulze, A. Schwartz and A. ValdÃ©s. 2005. (Ref. 415)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 23.6 - 28.2, mean 27 (based on 525 cells).
Low vulnerability (10 of 100)