Aves | Ciconiiformes
Environment / Climate / Range
Eastern Pacific, Western Atlantic and the Arctic. Polar to tropical.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 58.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 607.00 g (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 5.0 cm; wing: 39.9 cm.
Total Length: 51 to 58 cm; Wingspan: 122 to 140 cm (Ref. 8812). Coastal; <60 km (Ref. 356). Nest of simple construction. Despite risk of thermal stress on embryos and very young chicks, nests near shores of islands to be able to more easily detect predators, provides hiding places for small chicks, and ready escape routes for larger members. Stomach contents of Mono Lake population found with osmolalities of ca. 635 mosmo/kg, like their brine shrimp prey and just 25% as concentrated as the lake water, may be attributed to minimal intake of hypersaline waters; although unnecessary in maintenance of osmotic balance, observed to habitually visit freshwater sources along lake shore (Ref. 87784). Exhibits dipping and paddling (Ref. 356).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
SAUP Database. 2006. (Ref. 356)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 6.1 - 25, mean 9.7 (based on 479 cells).
Moderate vulnerability (43 of 100)