Aves | Ciconiiformes
Environment / Climate / Range
Indo-Pacific, Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean: Belize, Costa Rica and Netherlands Antilles.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 53.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 471.00 g (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 4.24 cm; tarsus: 5.08 cm; wing: 37.7 cm.
Total Length: 45 to 53 cm; Wingspan: 121 to 127 cm (Ref. 8812). Coastal; <31 km (Ref. 356). One of the few species that nest and forage in inland habitats, and move to the coast during non-breeding season. Nest of simple construction. Embryos are exceptionally known to elicit parental incubation behavior by vocalizing. Regurgitated pellets cast by adults to feed its cheeks during the nestling period contain mostly earthworms or fish (Ref. 87784). Display dipping and surface plunging (Ref. 356).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Lepage, D. 2007. (Ref. 7816)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 6.3 - 27.9, mean 12 (based on 2049 cells).
Moderate vulnerability (41 of 100)