Aves | Ciconiiformes
Environment / Climate / Range
Others; freshwater. Tropical
Indo-Pacific, Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean and the Arctic. Tropical to polar.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 61.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 830.00 g (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 5.07 cm; wing: 42.65 cm.
Total Length: 51 to 61 cm; Wingspan: 124 to 127 cm (Ref. 8812). A coastal species (Ref. 356). Found on bay and nearshore, beach and shoreline (Ref. 116102). Largely dependent on freshwater and terrestrial environments. Feeds mostly on non-fish vertebrate prey (Ref. 95711). Displays surface plunging and dipping behavior (Ref. 356). In the North Sea off the coasts of Scotland and northern England, is known to partially feed on the sandeel, Ammodytes marinus (Ref. 95711).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Lepage, D. 2007. (Ref. 7816)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 5.1 - 18.8, mean 10.3 (based on 1140 cells).
Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100)