Aves | Ciconiiformes
Environment / Climate / Range
Others; freshwater. Tropical
Northwest Atlantic, Indo-Pacific, Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean and the Arctic: Belize, Newfoundland, and Egypt. Tropical to polar.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 79.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 1.5 kg (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 6.48 cm; tarsus: 8.04 cm; wing: 48.1 cm.
Total Length: 71 to 79 cm; Wingspan: 152 to 167 cm (Ref. 8812). Found on beach and shoreline (Ref. 116102). Occupy the continental shelf; <100 km (Ref. 356). Largely dependent on freshwater and terrestrial environments. Feeds mostly on non-fish vertebrate prey (Ref. 95711). Displays surface-seizing and dipping behavior (Ref. 356). In the North Sea off the coasts of Scotland and northern England, is known to partially feed on the sandeel, Ammodytes marinus (Ref. 95711).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
SAUP Database. 2006. (Ref. 356)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 0.5 - 11.9, mean 7.3 (based on 1006 cells).
Moderate to high vulnerability (52 of 100)