Aves | Ciconiiformes
Environment / Climate / Range
Eastern Pacific and Western Atlantic. Subtropical to temperate.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 68.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 1.0 kg (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 5.56 cm; tarsus: 7.197 cm; wing: 41.2 cm.
Total Length: 61 to 68 cm; Wingspan: 132 to 142 cm (Ref. 8812). Occupies the continental shelf; <80 km (Ref. 356). Scavengers; exhibits kleptoparasitism (Ref. 356). Opportunistic feeders that eat a wide variety of food. Based on stable isotope analysis (SIA) diet study of egg albumin, belongs to lower N signature group (based on ratios of stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon) indicating a more planktivorous diet. Switch in diet from garbage to fish when chicks hatch for its higher nutritional content to assure higher fledging success. Early breeding and early egg-laying assures higher fledging success for this species. On the Farallon Islands, California, high nest failures recorded during ENSO (El NiÃ±o) events; severe events in 1982-1983 causing adult mortality. (Ref. 87784).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Schreiber, R.W. 1970. (Ref. 80153)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 5.4 - 18.5, mean 8.3 (based on 112 cells).
Moderate to high vulnerability (47 of 100)