Aves | Ciconiiformes
Environment / Climate / Range
Others; brackish. Tropical
Indo-West Pacific and Western Central Atlantic: North America, Europe, Africa, Asia.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 43.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 320.00 g (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 3.7 cm; tarsus: 4.7 cm; wing: 31.5 cm.
Total Length: 38 to 43 cm; Wingspan: 91 to 94 cm (Ref. 8812). Found on beach and shoreline (Ref. 116102). Surface seizing; dipping; coastal (Ref. 356).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Argeloo, M. 1993. (Ref. 7296)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100)