Aves | Ciconiiformes
Environment / Climate / Range
Northern Pacific, Northern Atlantic and the Arctic.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 68.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 1.3 kg (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 5.55 cm; tarsus: 6.78 cm; wing: 43.1 cm.
Total Length: 61 to 68 cm; Wingspan: 132 to 137 cm (Ref. 8812). Found on beach and shoreline (Ref. 116102). Dipping; surface plunging; coastal; steep cliffs, rocky islands.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
SAUP Database. 2006. (Ref. 356)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 2.9 - 20.9, mean 7.9 (based on 1272 cells).
Moderate to high vulnerability (47 of 100)