Aves | Ciconiiformes
Environment / Climate / Range
Indo-Pacific, Atlantic and the Antarctic. Subtropical to polar.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 99.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 4.7 kg (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 3.32 cm; tarsus: 2.65 cm; wing: 53.5 cm.
Total Length: 86 to 99 cm; Wingspan: 185 to 205 cm (Ref. 8812). Scavenging; surface seizing, plunging and diving; coastal; pack-ice (Ref. 356).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Southern Ocean Mollusc Database (SOMBASE). 2011. (Ref. 87340)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 2.1 - 15.6, mean 10.1 (based on 533 cells).
High vulnerability (60 of 100)