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Panulirus penicillatus   (Olivier, 1791)

pronghorn spiny lobster

Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Panulirus penicillatus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Panulirus penicillatus
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | CoL | ITIS | WoRMS

Malacostraca | Decapoda | Palinuridae

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Benthic; depth range 0 - 200 m (Ref. 96667).  Tropical; 46°N - 39°S, 30°E - 85°W (Ref. 108742)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Indo-Pacific.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 5 - 4.99 cm Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4)

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

It has lengths of 40 cm, maximum total body length; 30 cm, average adult length; Males are usually larger than females (Ref. 4). Maximum depth from Ref. 105425. Occurs at a depth range of 1 to 4 m on rocky substrates. It is usually found in clear waters often in surf zones and in surge channels; often near arid coasts and on small islands. The species is not gregarious and is nocturnal, hiding in the daytime in crevices in the rocks and coral reefs (Ref. 4) and moving at night to surge channels at the reef edge and into shallow reef flats (Ref. 84816). Primarily inhabits outer reef slopes (Refs. 84816, 106196). On rocky subtidal zone. Found in groups of more than 20 in submerged caves and lava tunnels during the day (Ref. 106199). In general, palinurids are mainly carnivores, usually feeding upon sluggish, easily captured animals where most material is eaten alive or freshly killed (Ref. 105260). Associated with a pedunculate barnacle (Ref. 105259). Brood and pelagic duration lasts 1 month (Ref. 81135) and 7.5 months (Ref. 81163), respectively. Also Refs. 81118, 106193.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Brood and pelagic duration lasts 1 month (Ref. 81135) and 7.5 months (Ref. 81163), respectively. Also Refs. 81118, 106193.

Main reference References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Holthuis, L.B. 1991. (Ref. 4)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES status (Ref. 108899)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

Human uses

Fisheries: commercial
| FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

More information

Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Morphology
Larvae
Abundance
References
Mass conversion

Internet sources

BHL | BOLD Systems | CISTI | DiscoverLife | FAO(Publication : search) | GenBank (genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | ispecies | PubMed | Scirus | Tree of Life | uBio | uBio RSS | Wikipedia (Go, Search) | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Vulnerability (Ref. 71543)
Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)
Very high