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Panulirus penicillatus   (Olivier, 1791)

pronghorn spiny lobster

Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Panulirus penicillatus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Panulirus penicillatus (pronghorn spiny lobster)
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Malacostraca | Decapoda | Palinuridae
Common names | Synonyms | CoL | ITIS | WoRMS

Main reference
Holthuis, L.B. 1991. (Ref. 4)
References | Biblio | Coordinator | Collaborators

Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4)

Benthic; depth range 0 - 200 m (Ref. 96667)

Climate / Range
Tropical; 46°N - 39°S, 30°E - 85°W (Ref. 108742)

Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

It has lengths of 40 cm, maximum total body length; 30 cm, average adult length; Males are usually larger than females (Ref. 4). Maximum depth from Ref. 105425. Occurs at a depth range of 1 to 4 m on rocky substrates. It is usually found in clear waters often in surf zones and in surge channels; often near arid coasts and on small islands. The species is not gregarious and is nocturnal, hiding in the daytime in crevices in the rocks and coral reefs (Ref. 4) and moving at night to surge channels at the reef edge and into shallow reef flats (Ref. 84816). Primarily inhabits outer reef slopes (Refs. 84816, 106196). On rocky subtidal zone. Found in groups of more than 20 in submerged caves and lava tunnels during the day (Ref. 106199). In general, palinurids are mainly carnivores, usually feeding upon sluggish, easily captured animals where most material is eaten alive or freshly killed (Ref. 105260). Associated with a pedunculate barnacle (Ref. 105259). Brood and pelagic duration lasts 1 month (Ref. 81135) and 7.5 months (Ref. 81163), respectively. Also Refs. 81118, 106193. Females spawn twice to four times during this period (Ref. 106192).

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)

CITES status (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

Human uses
Fisheries: commercial
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More information

Mass conversion

Internet sources
BHL | BOLD Systems | Check for other websites | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | DiscoverLife | FAO(Publication : search) | GenBank (genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | ispecies | National databases | PubMed | Scirus | Sea Around Us | FishBase | Tree of Life | uBio | uBio RSS | Wikipedia (Go, Search) | Zoological Record

Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models

Vulnerability (Ref. 71543)
Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)
Very high