Bisby, F.A., M.A. Ruggiero, K.L. Wilson, M. Cachuela-Palacio, S.W. Kimani, Y.R. Roskov, A. Soulier-Perkins and J. van Hertum. 2005. (Ref. 19)
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Size / Weight / Age
Climate / Range
Midsternal plate at anterior margin slightly developed at the ventral portion of segment 3. Midventral margin strongly dentate; remaining anterior margin of both ventral and dorsal plates minutely denticulate. Extremely prominent sensory spots. Perispinal setae present on all trunk segments. Short lateral terminal spines: 32 to 130 um, 14.7 to 35.6% of trunk length. Males possess more sensory spots, a flexible mid-dorsal spinose process on segment 12 with prespinal setae, 2 pairs of long flexible penile spines on terminal segment, small midterminal spine ventral to the long flexible mid-dorsal spine, shorter lateral terminal spines, slightly different structure of lateral extensions of terminal tegral and sternal plates, and narrower trunk (Ref. 1409).
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models