Pycnogonida | Pantopoda
Bamber, R.N. and M.H. Thurston. 1995. (Ref. 1797)
Size / Weight / Age
Demersal; depth range 380 - 2775 m (Ref. 1797)
Climate / Range
Northern Pacific, Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean: Korea and Japan.
Trunk unsegmented, compact, with tubercles or spines only on lateral processes; lateral processes long, separated by half their diameters proximally, without setae, but with tall dorsodistal tubercles and sometimes with small, lateral spinose tubercles. Ocular tubercles erect, almost as tall as abdomen; eyes lacking. Proboscis very short, subconical. Abdomen very tall, erect. Chelifore scapes I-segmented; chelae fully developed, with functional fingers. Palps usually 6 segmented, short. Ovigers 10 segmented, short, without functional strigilis; terminal segments with simple spines. Legs slender, with rows of short setae; terminal segments cylindrical; tarsus almost as long as propodus, both with row of short sole spines; propodus without heel or heel spines; claw long, without auxiliaries. Tall, conical lateral process tubercles with broad bases, and base of proboscis not bulbous but more conical; tarsus and propodus together subequal to second tibia in length (Ref. 2115, p. 31-32).
Coastal to slope (Ref. 1797 and 19). Members of the class Pycnogonida are gonochoric and sexually dimorphic. During copulation, male usually suspends itself beneath the female. Fertilization occurs as the eggs leave the female's ovigers. Males brood the egg masses until they hatch. Life cycle: Eggs hatch into protonymphon larva then to adults (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models