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Parastichopus regalis   (Cuvier, 1817)

royale cucumber

Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Parastichopus regalis   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Parastichopus regalis (royale cucumber)
Picture by FAO

Classification
Holothuroidea | Aspidochirotida | Stichopodidae
Common names | Synonyms | CoL | ITIS | WoRMS

Main reference
Ramón, M., J. Lleonart and E. Massutí. 2010. (Ref. 93433)
References | Biblio | Coordinator | Collaborators

Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 35.0 cm male/unsexed; (Ref. 363)

Environment
Benthic; depth range 5 - 800 m (Ref. 93433), usually 100 - 299 m (Ref. 93433)

Climate / Range
Subtropical

Distribution
Atlantic and the Mediterranean: Antilles to Gulf of Mexico and Canary Islands to Ireland.
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Short description
Maximum size: 35 cm (Ref. 363); 30 cm (Ref. 358). Maximum width: 7 cm (Ref. 363). Body: depressed enough with a side fold 5 cm pink power station (Ref. 363); definitely flattened form; is provided with the ventral face with 3 lines with podia. Dorsal tegument: Roughcast wart outgrowths and appendices; the papillae, of big size and white color; being limited to the periphery. Variable coloring, of brown with nuance of yellow to red, the sides being constellated with maculae possible blanches.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Maximum size: 35 cm (Ref. 363); 30 cm (Ref. 358). Methods: Captured by dredgers and trawls, this species is used in some countries of the zone (France, Spain where it is very appreciated in Catalonia). One needs additional information on the mode of Net use carrying of large papillae and separating the faces dorsal and ventral (Ref. 363). Habitat: Benthic species very common being from 5 to 800 m of depth at least on argillaceous and detrital funds (Ref. 363); sandy funds with muddy, partly entremélés of coralligenous. Present as of the low depths, the species does not seem however not represented in certain sectors of the southernmost Mediterranean and occidental. Biology: Nourishes various organic fragments, "charging the elements of ground in its oral opening, located in ventral position, using its tentacles oral of flattened form. The animal rejects the fraction not metabolically (sand, sediments). When they feel threatened, they expel their internal organs which will be regenerated in the species from 2 to 3 weeks. The digestive caecums or the respiratory tree of these animals frequently shelter Fierasfer acus, a syngnathe; 15 cm; parasitic fish does not benefit solely from the constant well oxygenated water flow which feeds the water-bearing channels. Youthful phase, the fish leaves them by boring one opening in order to gain the digestive tract, where it nourishes according to any probability at the expense of sexual glands of the sea cucumber. It leaves its host only temporarily. The young fish penetrate in the sea cucumbers by the head while the adult fish slip the end of their muzzle into the sac opening of the sea cucumber and contort themselves by movements of tail until engulfing itself entirely (Ref. 358). Members of the class Holothuroidea are gonochoric and have only one gonad. Spawning and fertilization are both external and some exhibit brooding. Life cycle: Embryos develop into planktotrophic larvae (auricularia) then into doliolaria (barrel-shaped stage) which later metamorphose into juvenile sea cucumbers (Ref. 833).

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)

CITES status (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans




Human uses

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More information

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FAO areas
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Ecology
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Common names
Synonyms
Predators
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
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Length-weight
Length-length
Morphology
Larvae
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References
Mass conversion

Internet sources
BHL | BOLD Systems | Check for other websites | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | DiscoverLife | FAO(Publication : search) | GenBank (genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | ispecies | National databases | PubMed | Scirus | FishBase | Tree of Life | uBio | uBio RSS | Wikipedia (Go, Search) | Zoological Record

Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models

Vulnerability (Ref. 71543)
Low vulnerability (25 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)
Unknown