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Pearsonothuria graeffei   (Semper, 1868)

blackspotted sea cucumber

Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Pearsonothuria graeffei   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Pearsonothuria graeffei (blackspotted sea cucumber)
Picture by Jan Messersmith

Classification Common names | Synonyms | CoL | ITIS | WoRMS

Holothuroidea | Aspidochirotida | Holothuriidae

Main reference References | Biblio | Coordinator | Collaborators

Conand, C. 1998. (Ref. 122)

Size / Weight / Age

Max length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 122); common length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 122); max. published weight: 1.3 kg (Ref. 122)


Reef-associated; depth range 0 - 30 m (Ref. 122)

Climate / Range


Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Indo-Pacific, excluding the Persian Gulf and Hawaii.

Short description

Mean live weight 700 to 1,300 g; body-wall thickness 0.4 cm. Body sub cylindrical, arched dorsally (bivium) and slightly flattened ventrally (trivium). White conical papillae sparsely distributed on bivium; podia on trivium long and large, their calcareous disc around 240 micrometer in diameter. Mouth ventral, surrounded by 25 large, black brown dots and numerous small black spots; trivium grey, also with small black spots. Spicules on dorsal and ventral tegument with pseudo-tables and rosettes; pseudo-tables consisting of large base with a large hole, and a spiny spire; rosettes numerous, those in the tegument simple, but more complicated in the dorsal papillae and ventral podia; also present around anus are rods, small plates, and tables with very spiny crown; tentacles containing a few rods and large plates derived from rosettes.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Maximum depth from Ref. 85218. Not harvested for bêche-de-mer production (Ref. 122). A coral reef species rarely found in depths of more than 25 m; mostly found on reef slopes close to the coast (Ref. 122, 85218); abundant on corals mixed with calcareous red algae. Population densities generally less than 0.005 per square meter (Ref. 122). In times of considerable irritation, this animal ejects Cuvierian tubules (Ref. 85218). Feeds on the surface of coral colonies and sponges (Ref. 101700). Members of the class Holothuroidea are gonochoric and have only one gonad. Spawning and fertilization are both external and some exhibit brooding. Life cycle: Embryos develop into planktotrophic larvae (auricularia) then into doliolaria (barrel-shaped stage) which later metamorphose into juvenile sea cucumbers (Ref. 833).

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)

CITES status (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans


Human uses

Fisheries: of no interest
| FisheriesWiki |

More information

Common names
Egg development
Mass conversion

Internet sources

BHL | BOLD Systems | Check for other websites | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | DiscoverLife | FAO(Publication : search) | GenBank (genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | ispecies | PubMed | Scirus | FishBase | Tree of Life | uBio | uBio RSS | Wikipedia (Go, Search) | Zoological Record

Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models

Vulnerability (Ref. 71543)
Low to moderate vulnerability (35 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)