Aves | Ciconiiformes
Environment / Climate / Range
Eastern Pacific and Western Atlantic: Belize and Puerto Rico.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 178 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 5.9 kg (Ref. 356)
Total Length: 127 to 178 cm; Wingspan: 244 to 299 cm (Ref. 8812). Coastal; <50 km (Ref. 356). Migration route from northern and central Canada and the US unto the southern states of Baja and into the Gulf of Mexico. Grows a bill horn in preparation for courtship which is shed after incubation commences. Pre-pairing procedure involving complex communal interactions, chases, and terrestrial, aquatic and aerial processions. Extra-pair copulation rare. Embryos are exceptionally known to elicit parental incubation behavior by vocalizing. Mortality rate of immature birds is 41% in the first year. The pesticide DDT in the 1960s caused egg-shell thinning such that they broke during incubation (Ref. 87784). Displays surface seizing (Ref. 356).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
SAUP Database. 2006. (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 38.1 cm; tarsus: 11.85 cm; wing: 62.23 cm.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
| FisheriesWiki |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 12.8 - 28, mean 26.9 (based on 914 cells; Ref. 115970
Very high vulnerability (90 of 100)