Bivalvia | Mytiloida
Carpenter, K.E. (ed.). 2002. (Ref. 271)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 17.0 cm NG male/unsexed; (Ref. 271)
Benthic; depth range 0 - 50 m (Ref. 101292)
Climate / Range
Tropical; 10°C - 30°C (Ref. 113750); 37°N - 35°S, 64°W - 82°E
Western Indian Ocean, Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea: from the southern Caribbean to Uruguay, eastern Atlantic from Portugal to Senegal, and Congo to South Africa, and in the western Indian Ocean from South Africa to Sri Lanka. Introduced in the Gulf of Mexico. Tropical and subtropical.
Shell mussel-shaped, ventral margin straight, posterior end rounded. Shell surface smooth except for fine growth lines. Hinge 1 or 2 teeth. Periostracum flaky. Colour: externally brown or light brown with concentric yellow bands near ventral margin, internally purple, nacreous.
It is heavily exploited commercially, stocks are dwindling in southernmost part or range. Consumed boiled in juices, marinated, grilled with rice, or in a number of different local dishes. Canned industrially (Ref. 271). Minimum depth from Ref. 104365. It is attached by byssus onto hard substrates, common in high-energy rocky coasts (Ref. 271). Feeds primarily on detritus (Ref. 114808). Members of the class Bivalvia are mostly gonochoric, some are protandric hermaphrodites. Life cycle: Embryos develop into free-swimming trocophore larvae, succeeded by the bivalve veliger, resembling a miniature clam (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial
FAO(Aquaculture: production; fisheries: production) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us
Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models
Low vulnerability (10 of 100)