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Perna perna   (Linnaeus, 1758)

South American rock mussel
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Image of Perna perna (South American rock mussel)
Picture by Elliff, Carla Isobel

Classification
Bivalvia | Mytiloida | Mytilidae
Common names | Synonyms | CoL | ITIS | WoRMS

Main reference
Carpenter, K.E. (ed.). 2002. (Ref. 271)
References | Biblio | Coordinator | Collaborators

Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 17.0 cm NG male/unsexed; (Ref. 271)

Environment
Benthic; depth range 0 - 50 m (Ref. 101292)

Climate / Range
Tropical; 10°C - 30°C (Ref. 113750), preferred 26°C (Ref. 107945); 37°N - 35°S, 64°W - 82°E

Distribution
Western Indian Ocean, Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea: from the southern Caribbean to Uruguay, eastern Atlantic from Portugal to Senegal, and Congo to South Africa, and in the western Indian Ocean from South Africa to Sri Lanka. Introduced in the Gulf of Mexico. Tropical and subtropical.
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Short description
Shell mussel-shaped, ventral margin straight, posterior end rounded. Shell surface smooth except for fine growth lines. Hinge 1 or 2 teeth. Periostracum flaky. Colour: externally brown or light brown with concentric yellow bands near ventral margin, internally purple, nacreous.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

It is heavily exploited commercially, stocks are dwindling in southernmost part or range. Consumed boiled in juices, marinated, grilled with rice, or in a number of different local dishes. Canned industrially (Ref. 271). Minimum depth from Ref. 104365. It is attached by byssus onto hard substrates, common in high-energy rocky coasts (Ref. 271). Members of the class Bivalvia are mostly gonochoric, some are protandric hermaphrodites. Life cycle: Embryos develop into free-swimming trocophore larvae, succeeded by the bivalve veliger, resembling a miniature clam (Ref. 833).

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)

   

CITES status (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans




Human uses
Fisheries: highly commercial
FAO(Aquaculture: production; fisheries: production) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us |

More information

Common names
Synonyms
Predators
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Morphology
Larvae
Abundance
References
Mass conversion

Internet sources
BHL | BOLD Systems | Check for other websites | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | DiscoverLife | FAO(fisheries: ; publication : search) | GenBank (genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | ispecies | National databases | PubMed | Scirus | Sea Around Us | FishBase | Tree of Life | uBio | uBio RSS | Wikipedia (Go, Search) | Zoological Record

Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models

Vulnerability (Ref. 71543)
Low vulnerability (10 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)
Medium