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Perna perna   (Linnaeus, 1758)

South American rock mussel

Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Perna perna   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Perna perna (South American rock mussel)
Picture by Elliff, Carla Isobel

Classification Common names | Synonyms | CoL | ITIS | WoRMS

Bivalvia | Mytiloida | Mytilidae

Main reference References | Biblio | Coordinator | Collaborators

Carpenter, K.E. (ed.). 2002. (Ref. 271)

Size / Weight / Age

Max length : 17.0 cm NG male/unsexed; (Ref. 271)


Benthic; depth range 0 - 50 m (Ref. 101292)

Climate / Range

Tropical; 10°C - 30°C (Ref. 113750); 37°N - 35°S, 64°W - 82°E

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Western Indian Ocean, Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea: from the southern Caribbean to Uruguay, eastern Atlantic from Portugal to Senegal, and Congo to South Africa, and in the western Indian Ocean from South Africa to Sri Lanka. Introduced in the Gulf of Mexico. Tropical and subtropical.

Short description

Shell mussel-shaped, ventral margin straight, posterior end rounded. Shell surface smooth except for fine growth lines. Hinge 1 or 2 teeth. Periostracum flaky. Colour: externally brown or light brown with concentric yellow bands near ventral margin, internally purple, nacreous.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

It is heavily exploited commercially, stocks are dwindling in southernmost part or range. Consumed boiled in juices, marinated, grilled with rice, or in a number of different local dishes. Canned industrially (Ref. 271). Minimum depth from Ref. 104365. It is attached by byssus onto hard substrates, common in high-energy rocky coasts (Ref. 271). Feeds primarily on detritus (Ref. 114808). Members of the class Bivalvia are mostly gonochoric, some are protandric hermaphrodites. Life cycle: Embryos develop into free-swimming trocophore larvae, succeeded by the bivalve veliger, resembling a miniature clam (Ref. 833).

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)


CITES status (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

Human uses

Fisheries: highly commercial
FAO(Aquaculture: production; fisheries: production) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

Internet sources

BHL | BOLD Systems | Check for other websites | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | DiscoverLife | FAO(fisheries: ; publication : search) | GenBank (genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | ispecies | National databases | PubMed | Scirus | Sea Around Us | FishBase | Tree of Life | uBio | uBio RSS | Wikipedia (Go, Search) | Zoological Record

Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models

Vulnerability (Ref. 71543)
Low vulnerability (10 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)