Aves | Ciconiiformes
Environment / Climate / Range
Others; freshwater. Subtropical
Indo-West Pacific, Mediterranean and Atlantic.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 101 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 2.5 kg (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 6.96 cm; tarsus: 7.4 cm; wing: 35.7 cm.
Total Length: 80 to 101 cm; Wingspan: 130 to 160 cm (Ref. 8812). Found on beach and shoreline (Ref. 116102). A coastal species (Ref. 356). Largely dependent on freshwater and terrestrial environments. Feeds mostly on non-fish vertebrate prey (Ref. 95711). Displays pursuit-diving behavior (Ref. 356). In the North Sea off the coasts of Scotland and northern England, is known to partially feed on the sand eel, Ammodytes marinus (Ref. 95711).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
SAUP Database. 2006. (Ref. 356)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FisheriesWiki |
Estimates of some properties based on models
High vulnerability (61 of 100)