Phascolosomatidea | Phascolosomatida
Environment / Climate / Range
Demersal; depth range 0 - 5 m (Ref. 1815). Temperate
Indo-Pacific and the Mediterranean: Korean Peninsula.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 4.0 cm TRKL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1815)
Intertidal and subtidal on vegetation (Ref. 1815). Depth based on occurrence (Ref. 1815); to be replaced with better reference. Subtidal (Ref. 1815).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Morozov, T.B. and A.V. Adrianov. 2002. (Ref. 1815)
Comparatively large animals of grayish yellow color. Body cylindrical. Trunk region 0.4 - 4 cm
long. Introvert almost as long as trunk region. Entire body surface densely set with large (0.06 - 0.08 cm) dome-shaped black papillae. Papillae especially numerous on terminal and anal shields. Cephalon bear-ing crown of 21-29 tentacles in horseshoe-like arrangement
around heart-shaped nuchal organ. Behind cephalon, introvert bearing specialized cuticular appendages (scalids), arranged into 15-30 circles. Two ventral and two dorsal retractors of introvert. Ventral retractors anchored in posterior third of trunk. Contractile vessel simple, with no lateral branches. Intestine with 10-18 loops, in dependence on animal size. Longitudinal
musculature of body wall divided into pronounced, isolated longitudinal bands. Spindle-shaped muscle fastened at terminal end of trunk; 1-3 fixing muscles. Anus located somewhat in front of or level with nephrophores. Wing muscles well-developed. Rectal diverticulum
absent. 2 nephridia fastened to body wall along 1/3 of their length via thin mesenterial filaments. Nephridiums 30 - 50 percentage as long as trunk (Ref. 1815).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimates of some properties based on models
): 7.7 - 28.8, mean 21.6 (based on 2164 cells; Ref. 115970
Low vulnerability (10 of 100)