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Phoca vitulina   Linnaeus, 1758

Harbour seal
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Classification Common names | Synonyms | CoL | ITIS | WoRMS

Mammalia | Carnivora | Phocidae

Main reference References | Biblio | Coordinator | Collaborators

Jefferson, T.A., S. Leatherwood and M.A. Webber. 1993. (Ref. 1394)

Size / Weight / Age

Max length : 190 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1394); 170 cm TL (female); max. published weight: 150.0 kg (Ref. 1394); max. published weight: 150.0 kg

Environment

Bathydemersal

Climate / Range

Temperate; 90°N - 0°S, 180°W - 180°E

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, the Arctic and North America Inland Waters: Portugal, Iceland, Greenland, Canada Newfoundland, Spain, France, Belgium, Ireland, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, Norway, Sweden Lithuania, Poland, Latvia, Estonia, Finland, Russia, UK, USA, Canada, Mexico, Alaska, Japan, Kamchatka (Ref. 1394), Br Scotland, Madeira, British Columbia, Kuril Island, Sea of Okhotsk, Gulf of California, Baltic Sea, Barents Sea, Hudson Bay (Ref. 1522); Phoca vitulina vitulina: Portugal, UK, Iceland, Greenland, Br Scotland, Norway, Madeira, Baltic Sea, Barents Sea; Phoca vitulina concolor: Canada, Hudson Bay, USA, Greenland, Iceland; Phoca vitulina richardii: Mexico, Alaska, British Columbia, USA, Gulf of California; Phoca vitulina stejnegeri: Japan, Kamchatka, Alaska, Sea of Okhotsk, Kuril Island; Phoca vitulina mellonae: Hudson Bay, James Bay. Temperate to polar regions.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found in coastal waters of the continental shelf and slope (Ref. 1394); and whelp in groups on beaches, sandbars, and rocky reefs (Ref. 1522). Feeds on a wide variety of fish, cephalopods, and crustaceans of surface, mid-water and benthic habitats (Ref. 1394). It is preyed upon by the great white shark (Ref. 32140). Found in coastal waters of the continental shelf and slope (Ref. 1394); and whelp in groups on beaches, sandbars, and rocky reefs (Ref. 1522). Also for resting, moulting and lactation during low tides. Typically perform U-shaped dives. Leave the coast on foraging trips to deeper offshore waters where prey is abundant (Ref. 96347). Feeds on a wide variety of fish, cephalopods, and crustaceans of surface, mid-water and benthic habitats (Ref. 1394).

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)

CITES status (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

Human uses

Fisheries: commercial
FAO(fisheries: production) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

More information

Common names
Synonyms
Predators
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Morphology
Larvae
Abundance
References
Mass conversion

Internet sources

BHL | BOLD Systems | Check for other websites | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | DiscoverLife | FAO(fisheries: species profile; publication : search) | GenBank (genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | ispecies | National databases | PubMed | Scirus | Sea Around Us | FishBase | Tree of Life | uBio | uBio RSS | Wikipedia (Go, Search) | Zoological Record

Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models

Vulnerability (Ref. 71543)
High vulnerability (60 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)
Unknown