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Phoca vitulina   Linnaeus, 1758

Harbour seal
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Phoca vitulina
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | CoL | ITIS | WoRMS

Mammalia | Carnivora | Phocidae

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Bathydemersal.  Temperate; 90°N - 0°S, 180°W - 180°E

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, the Arctic and North America Inland Waters: Portugal, Iceland, Greenland, Canada Newfoundland, Spain, France, Belgium, Ireland, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, Norway, Sweden Lithuania, Poland, Latvia, Estonia, Finland, Russia, UK, USA, Canada, Mexico, Alaska, Japan, Kamchatka (Ref. 1394), Br Scotland, Madeira, British Columbia, Kuril Island, Sea of Okhotsk, Gulf of California, Baltic Sea, Barents Sea, Hudson Bay (Ref. 1522); Phoca vitulina vitulina: Portugal, UK, Iceland, Greenland, Br Scotland, Norway, Madeira, Baltic Sea, Barents Sea; Phoca vitulina concolor: Canada, Hudson Bay, USA, Greenland, Iceland; Phoca vitulina richardii: Mexico, Alaska, British Columbia, USA, Gulf of California; Phoca vitulina stejnegeri: Japan, Kamchatka, Alaska, Sea of Okhotsk, Kuril Island; Phoca vitulina mellonae: Hudson Bay, James Bay. Temperate to polar regions.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 190 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1394); 170 cm TL (female); max. published weight: 150.0 kg (Ref. 1394); max. published weight: 150.0 kg

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found in coastal waters of the continental shelf and slope (Ref. 1394); and whelp in groups on beaches, sandbars, and rocky reefs (Ref. 1522). Feeds on a wide variety of fish, cephalopods, and crustaceans of surface, mid-water and benthic habitats (Ref. 1394). It is preyed upon by the great white shark (Ref. 32140). Found in coastal waters of the continental shelf and slope (Ref. 1394); and whelp in groups on beaches, sandbars, and rocky reefs (Ref. 1522). Also for resting, moulting and lactation during low tides. Typically perform U-shaped dives. Leave the coast on foraging trips to deeper offshore waters where prey is abundant (Ref. 96347). Feeds on a wide variety of fish, cephalopods, and crustaceans of surface, mid-water and benthic habitats (Ref. 1394).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Jefferson, T.A., S. Leatherwood and M.A. Webber. 1993. (Ref. 1394)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES status (Ref. 108899)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

Human uses

Fisheries: commercial
FAO(fisheries: production) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

More information

Common names
Synonyms
Predators
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Morphology
Larvae
Abundance
References
Mass conversion

Internet sources

BHL | BOLD Systems | CISTI | DiscoverLife | FAO(fisheries: species profile; publication : search) | GenBank (genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | ispecies | PubMed | Scirus | Tree of Life | uBio | uBio RSS | Wikipedia (Go, Search) | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Vulnerability (Ref. 71543)
High vulnerability (60 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)
Unknown