Bivalvia | Pterioida
Environment / Climate / Range
Benthic; depth range 0 - 40 m (Ref. 80041), usually 0 - 20 m (Ref. 75831). Tropical; 38°N - 33°S, 180°W - 180°E
Indo-Pacific: from Mexico to Tanzania and Red Sea.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 9.8 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2922)
Byssally attached to rocks and coral debris (Ref. 8010). Inhabits reef areas of lagoons (Ref. 97298). Some found lying freely on sand, coarse gravel or dead coral substrates and often found in eel grass beds and other marine plants (Ref. 80041). Feeds on phytoplankton (Ref. 96904). A continuous spawner (peak: December to April, warm season) (Ref. 96997). A continuous spawner. Fecundity: value of a recomputed from mm (Ref. 96997).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
A continuous spawner (peak: December to April, warm season).
Poutiers, J.M. 1998. (Ref. 348)
Shell rather thick and large (attaining 25 cm in length), subcircular in outline, with a short and ill-defined posterior ear which is not drawn out into a wing-like process. Anterior margin markedly protruding beyond the tip of anterior ear. Outer surface of valves, when not worn, with densely set, flattened, imbricating concentric scales and moderately long, parallel-sided and flattened spines with tapering or rounded ends; spines lying relatively flat on surface of valves, arranged in radial rows and often strongly projecting on shell margins. hinge completely devoid of teeth. Colour: outside of shell greyish brown or green to nearly black in ground colour, with radial stripes of white or yellowish markings corresponding to the basal portion of old flattened spines. Internal nacreous area silvery, with a darker smoky hue and a hint of red and green iridescence on border. Non-nacreous area very dark.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimates of some properties based on models
): 23.8 - 29, mean 27.6 (based on 1848 cells; Ref. 115970
Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100)