Size / Weight / Age
Climate / Range
Holdfast small, discoid; stem short, cylindrical, large at base, slightly tapered to tip, smooth or partly smooth and slightly warty. Primary branches smooth, slightly compressed near base, becoming cylindrical toward upper portions. Leaves coriaceous, obovate, 10mm long, 8 mm wide; stalk very short, almost sessile, with coarse teeth; base (thick) acute, slightly asymmetrical in some; margin coarsely serrate, serrations arranged in single or double rows; distal third of most leaves expanded into a cup-like structure of mainly elliptical to oblong shape when viewed from top view of leaf, resembling the leave structure of Turbinaria; midrib not apparent even at base. Cryptostomata scattered, very apparent, and slightly elevated. Vesicles numerous, some enlarged, up to 12 mm long, 6 mm wide, generally elliptical-oblong or slightly oblong-obovate; stalk very short, less than 1/4 length of vesicle; vesicles irregularly lumpy because of cryptostomata; some vesicles slightly ribbed with or without coronal leaf, those without coronal leaf with a row of coarse spines on upper half. Receptacles irregularly cymose with short, once or twice branched; receptacular branches terete at lower half, slightly compressed toward distal half, with occasional teeth along the margin. Primary branches up to 50 cm in length (Ref. 80758).
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models