Gymnolaemata | Cheilostomata
Environment / Climate / Range
Sessile; depth range 0 - 44 m (Ref. 2672). Subtropical
Western Indian Ocean, Western Central Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea. Introduced to Hawaii.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Minimum depth from Ref. 116066. Encrusting, erect (Ref. 116066). Commonly occurs on th roots of Thyroscyphus and other hydroids. Also found on sponges and the bryozoan Zoobotryon (Ref. 116257). Epibiotic on algae (Ref. 108070). Members of the phylum Bryozoa are hermaphroditic. Both fertilization and egg brooding may either be internal or external (Ref. 833).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Members of the phylum Bryozoa are hermaphroditic. Both fertilization and egg brooding may either be internal or external.
Morri, C., C.N. Bianchi, S. Cocito, A. Peirano, A.M. De Biase, S. Aliani, M. Pansini, M. Boyer, F. Ferdeghini, M Pestarino and P. Dando. 1999. (Ref. 2672)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
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Estimates of some properties based on models