Gastropoda | Cephalaspidea
Environment / Climate / Range
Benthic; depth range 70 - 630 m (Ref. 106520). Temperate; 71°N - 27°N, 27°W - 30°E
Eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean: Europe. Questionable in Belgium and France.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 6.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 106791)
Deep-sea species (Ref. 107017). Found on the continental shelf (Ref. 105470). Epibenthic (Ref. 87524). Inhabits sand (Ref. 105644). Sub-surface deposit feeder (Ref. 105850). Scaphander species are carnivores. Feeds on small shelled molluscs, forams, young echinoids, sipunculids and polychaetes (Ref. 107017). Members of the order Cephalaspidea are mostly simultaneous hermaphrodites (Ref. 833).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Members of the order Cephalaspidea are mostly simultaneous hermaphrodites.
Ellis, J.R., G. Burt and S.I. Rogers. 2007. (Ref. 87524)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
| FisheriesWiki |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 6.3 - 11.5, mean 7.8 (based on 223 cells; Ref. 115970