Gymnolaemata | Cheilostomata
Environment / Climate / Range
Sessile; depth range 0 - 165 m (Ref. 107555). Temperate
Western Indian Ocean, Northeast Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea. Temperate and subtropical.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Colonial; subtidal. Fouls pontoons, buoys and mooring ropes (Ref. 102838). Members of the phylum Bryozoa are hermaphroditic. Both fertilization and egg brooding may either be internal or external (Ref. 833).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Members of the phylum Bryozoa are hermaphroditic. Both fertilization and egg brooding may either be internal or external.
Harms, J. 1993. (Ref. 2711)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
| FisheriesWiki |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 14.1 - 28.4, mean 22.1 (based on 626 cells; Ref. 115970