Gymnolaemata | Cheilostomata
Harms, J. 1993. (Ref. 2711)
Size / Weight / Age
Sessile; depth range 0 - 165 m (Ref. 107555)
Climate / Range
Western Indian Ocean, Northeast Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea. Temperate and subtropical.
Colonial; subtidal. Fouls pontoons, buoys and mooring ropes (Ref. 102838). Members of the phylum Bryozoa are hermaphroditic. Both fertilization and egg brooding may either be internal or external (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models