Polychaeta | Not assigned
Harms, J. 1993. (Ref. 2711)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 12.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7882)
Climate / Range
Arctic, Northern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and Indo-Pacific. Tropical to boreal.
Species' maximum length from the Belgian part of the North Sea (Ref. 7882). Found in estuarine and inshore areas (Ref. 96352) along the coastal zone in all sediment types but preferentially in fine to moderately coarse sand enriched with mud (up to 40% mud content) (Refs. 7882, 96352). Known as a head-down deposit feeder (Refs. 96214, 96352). Members of the class Polychaeta are mostly gonochoric (sexual). Mating: Females produce a pheromone attracting and signalling the males to shed sperm which in turn stimulates females to shed eggs, this behavior is known as swarming. Gametes are spawned through the metanephridia or body wall rupturing (termed as "epitoky", wherein a pelagic, reproductive individual, "epitoke", is formed from a benthic, nonreproductive individual, "atoke"). After fertilization, most eggs become planktonic; although some are retained in the worm tubes or burrowed in jelly masses attached to the tubes (egg brooders). Life Cycle: Eggs develop into trocophore larva, which later metamorph into juvenile stage (body lengthened), and later develop into adults (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models