Gymnolaemata | Cheilostomata
Environment / Climate / Range
Northeast Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea: Svalbard and England. Polar and subtropical.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
This is an attached species (Ref. 3123). Members of the phylum Bryozoa are hermaphroditic. Both fertilization and egg brooding may either be internal or external (Ref. 833).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Members of the phylum Bryozoa are hermaphroditic. Both fertilization and egg brooding may either be internal or external.
Piepenburg, D., N.V. Chernova, C.F. von Dorrien, J. Gutt, A.V. Neyelov, E. Rachor, L. Saldanha and M.K. Schmid. 1996. (Ref. 2952)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
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Estimates of some properties based on models