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Sepia pharaonis   Ehrenberg, 1831

pharaoh cuttlefish

Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Sepia pharaonis   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Sepia pharaonis (pharaoh cuttlefish)
Picture by FAO

Classification Common names | Synonyms | CoL | ITIS | WoRMS

Cephalopoda | Sepiida | Sepiidae

Main reference References | Biblio | Coordinator | Collaborators

Jereb, P. and C.F.E. Roper (eds.). 2005. (Ref. 1695)

Size / Weight / Age

Max length : 43.0 cm ML male/unsexed; (Ref. 275); 33 cm ML (female); max. published weight: 5.0 kg (Ref. 275); max. published weight: 5.0 kg


Demersal; depth range 0 - 130 m (Ref. 1695), usually ? - 40 m (Ref. 275)

Climate / Range

Tropical; 41°N - 26°S, 32°E - 151°E (Ref. 1695)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Indo-West Pacific and the Mediterranean Sea: from Red Sea to Japan and Australia.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Common sizes in landings range from 15 to 20 cm (Ref. 3722). This species supports industrial or artisanal fisheries throughout its range. Mostly fished and abundant in Gulf and the Andaman Sea. This species has been grown successfully in culture and techniques are being developed to culture the animals commercially (Ref. 1695). Minimum depth from Ref. 103582. Benthic (Ref. 105085). Most common in shallow coastal waters (Ref. 801). Commonly found over sand and seagrass beds (Ref. 102838). Active predator and exhibits cannibalism (Ref. 105085). Feeds on crustaceans, small fish (Ref. 801) and cephalopods (Ref. 105085). Able to change color rapidly (Ref. 102838). Members of the class Cephalopoda are gonochoric. Male and female adults usually die shortly after spawning and brooding, respectively. Mating behavior: Males perform various displays to attract potential females for copulation. During copulation, male grasp the female and inserts the hectocotylus into the female's mantle cavity where fertilization usually occurs. Life cycle: Embryos hatch into planktonic stage and live for some time before they grow larger and take up a benthic existence as adults (Ref. 833). Spawning season may sometimes extend to August (Ref. 84888).

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)

CITES status (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; aquarium: potential
| FisheriesWiki |

More information

FAO areas
Food items
Mass conversion

Internet sources

BHL | BOLD Systems | Check for other websites | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | DiscoverLife | FAO(Publication : search) | GenBank (genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | ispecies | National databases | PubMed | Scirus | FishBase | Tree of Life | uBio | uBio RSS | Wikipedia (Go, Search) | Zoological Record

Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models

Vulnerability (Ref. 71543)
Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)