Cephalopoda | Sepiida
Jereb, P. and C.F.E. Roper (eds.). 2005. (Ref. 1695)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 43.0 cm ML male/unsexed; (Ref. 275); 33 cm ML (female); max. published weight: 5.0 kg (Ref. 275); max. published weight: 5.0 kg
Demersal; depth range 0 - 130 m (Ref. 1695), usually ? - 40 m (Ref. 275)
Climate / Range
Tropical; 41°N - 26°S, 32°E - 151°E (Ref. 1695)
Indo-West Pacific and the Mediterranean Sea: from Red Sea to Japan and Australia.
Common sizes in landings range from 15 to 20 cm (Ref. 3722). This species supports industrial or artisanal fisheries throughout its range. Mostly fished and abundant in Gulf and the Andaman Sea. This species has been grown successfully in culture and techniques are being developed to culture the animals commercially (Ref. 1695). Minimum depth from Ref. 103582. Benthic (Ref. 105085). Most common in shallow coastal waters (Ref. 801). Commonly found over sand and seagrass beds (Ref. 102838). Active predator and exhibits cannibalism (Ref. 105085). Feeds on crustaceans, small fish (Ref. 801) and cephalopods (Ref. 105085). Able to change color rapidly (Ref. 102838). Members of the class Cephalopoda are gonochoric. Male and female adults usually die shortly after spawning and brooding, respectively. Mating behavior: Males perform various displays to attract potential females for copulation. During copulation, male grasp the female and inserts the hectocotylus into the female's mantle cavity where fertilization usually occurs. Life cycle: Embryos hatch into planktonic stage and live for some time before they grow larger and take up a benthic existence as adults (Ref. 833). Spawning season may sometimes extend to August (Ref. 84888).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; aquarium: potential
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models
Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100)