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Sepia pharaonis   Ehrenberg, 1831

pharaoh cuttlefish

Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Sepia pharaonis   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Sepia pharaonis (pharaoh cuttlefish)
Sepia pharaonis
Picture by FAO

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | CoL | ITIS | WoRMS

Cephalopoda | Sepiida | Sepiidae

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Demersal; depth range 0 - 130 m (Ref. 1695), usually ? - 40 m (Ref. 275).  Tropical; 41°N - 26°S, 32°E - 151°E (Ref. 1695)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Indo-West Pacific and the Mediterranean Sea: from Red Sea to Japan and Australia.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 12.2, range 5 - 24 cm Max length : 43.0 cm ML male/unsexed; (Ref. 275); 33 cm ML (female); max. published weight: 5.0 kg (Ref. 275); max. published weight: 5.0 kg

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Common sizes in landings range from 15 to 20 cm (Ref. 3722). This species supports industrial or artisanal fisheries throughout its range. Mostly fished and abundant in Gulf and the Andaman Sea. This species has been grown successfully in culture and techniques are being developed to culture the animals commercially (Ref. 1695). Minimum depth from Ref. 103582. Benthic (Ref. 105085). Most common in shallow coastal waters (Ref. 801). Commonly found over sand and seagrass beds (Ref. 102838). Active predator and exhibits cannibalism (Ref. 105085). Feeds on crustaceans, small fish (Ref. 801) and cephalopods (Ref. 105085). Able to change color rapidly (Ref. 102838). Members of the class Cephalopoda are gonochoric. Male and female adults usually die shortly after spawning and brooding, respectively. Mating behavior: Males perform various displays to attract potential females for copulation. During copulation, male grasp the female and inserts the hectocotylus into the female's mantle cavity where fertilization usually occurs. Life cycle: Embryos hatch into planktonic stage and live for some time before they grow larger and take up a benthic existence as adults (Ref. 833).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Members of the class Cephalopoda are gonochoric. Male and female adults usually die shortly after spawning and brooding, respectively. Mating behavior: Males perform various displays to attract potential females for copulation. During copulation, male grasp the female and inserts the hectocotylus into the female's mantle cavity where fertilization usually occurs. Life cycle: Embryos hatch into planktonic stage and live for some time before they grow larger and take up a benthic existence as adults.

Main reference References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Jereb, P. and C.F.E. Roper (eds.). 2005. (Ref. 1695)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES status (Ref. 108899)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; aquarium: potential
| FisheriesWiki |

More information

Countries
FAO areas
Ecosystems
Occurrences
Introductions
Stocks
Ecology
Diet
Food items
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Morphology
Larvae
Abundance
References
Mass conversion

Internet sources

BHL | BOLD Systems | CISTI | DiscoverLife | FAO(Publication : search) | GenBank (genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | ispecies | PubMed | Scirus | Tree of Life | uBio | uBio RSS | Wikipedia (Go, Search) | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Vulnerability (Ref. 71543)
Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)
High